adjutant - a staff officer in the army who assists the commanding officer and is responsible for correspondence.
by-word – this term refers to one who is notorious or is despised by others.
comfortables – the author probably means "comforter," which is a bed covering made of two layers of cloth stuffed with a filling of cotton or wool.
confiscate - to seize for the public treasury; to seize by authority.
cordial – stimulating medicine or drink; usually a sweetened alcoholic drink (such as brandy) flavored with fruit, spices, nuts, herbs, or seeds.
dimity - a sheer, usually corded, cotton fabric of plain weave in a checked or striped pattern.
evacuees – persons forced to move from their location due to military operations or dangerous conditions.
environs – the districts around a city; surroundings.
foray - to make a raid or brief invasion.
gloaming – twilight, dusk.
menial - appropriate to a servant; lowly.
palatial – grand, magnificent; like a palace.
reproach - a cause or occasion of blame, discredit, or disgrace.
waypoint - an intermediate point on a route or line of travel.
sentries - soldiers who stood guard at a point of passage (such as a gate).
typhoid epidemic - a massive outbreak of a communicable disease marked especially by fever, diarrhea, prostration, headache, and intestinal inflammation and caused by a bacterium (Salmonella typhi).